This is Part 2 section 7 of Sintesi di dottrina della razza by Julius Evola in which he discusses the Hyperborean race. The texts that he refers to are Revolt Against the Modern World and The Myth of Blood; the chapters in Revolt on the Hyperboreans should be read in conjunction with section.
From the corporeal perspective, this can be understood as a specific race of humans. From a spiritual perspective, it can be understood in terms of sacred geography. In the latter case, the Hyperboreans represent a race of people who lived in the light, i.e., in self-effulgent consciousness. Or both interpretations can coincide.
The limit that can be given to our doctrine of the race regarding the exploration of its origins lies at the point when the Hyperborean race had to abandon the Arctic home in successive waves following different paths, because of the freezing that rendered it uninhabitable—it was already pointed out, in previous citations, justification for the idea that the Arctic region became completely ice bound only after a certain period: the memories of that home, preserved in the traditions of all peoples in the form of various myths where it always appears as a “land of the sun”, as an island continent of splendour, as the sacred ground of the God of light, and so on, were already, in this respect, rather eloquent.
Now, at the point of the beginnings of the prehistoric Hyperborean emigrations, the Hyperborean race could be considered, among all of them, the superior one, the super-race, the Olympic race reflecting in its extreme purity the very race of the spirit. By and large, it seems that all the other human stocks existing on the earth in that period, appeared either as “races of nature”, that is, animalistic races, or, as races that had become “races of nature” through involutions of the preceding racial cycles. In fact, the traditional teachings speak of a civilization or of an Antarctic race that had already fallen into decline in the period of the first Hyperborean emigrations and colonisations, and whose Lemurian residues were represented by sizable groups of black and Malaysian races. Another racial stock, distinct both from the Hyperboreans and from the Antarctic-Lemurians, was that which originally occupied the Eurasian continent (the Finnish-Mongoloid race) as the yellow-brown race and, as the as red-brown race and also again the yellow-brown, occupied both a part of the Americas and Atlantic lands that are now extinct.
It would obviously be absurd to attempt a precise typology of these prehistoric races and of their primordial combinations in regards to exterior characteristics. We must refer to them only to prevent some misunderstandings and to be able to orient ourselves among the ethnic formations of the successive periods. Also, the investigation of skull fossils can tell us very little, both because race is not characterized just by the skull, not even the simple race of the body, because there are reasons to justifiably assert that, for some such races, fossil remains could not be preserved up until our time. The dolicephalous, or elongated skull, combined with a tall and slim figure, blonde hair, clear skin, blue eyes, is, as we noted, characteristic of the most recent descendants of the Nordic races who came directly down from the Arctic regions. But all that does not constitute the final word; even within the limits of the positive order, it is necessary to bring in considerations proper to the study of the race of the second level [race of the soul] in order to get our bearings.
In fact, we already said that the essential element for race is not given by simple corporeal and anthropological characteristics, but by the function and the meaning that they have in the whole of a given human type. Dolicephalous men with a tall and slender build are also found in fact among the black races, and a white coloration and almost blue eyes are found among the Ainu of the Far East and the Malaysian-Polynesian races, naturally having a totally different significance in such races. Nor must we think here only of anomalies or tricks of nature, in certain cases being able to treat of extinct somatic survivals in the proceeding types from races which, in their most remote zenithal period, were able to have similar characters to those which, in the period we are considering, were instead found concentrated in the Nordic-Hyperborean element and here accompanied, up to a relatively recent period, by the significance and by the corresponding inner races.
As to the emigration of the races of Hyperborean origin, having previously written about them in the books previously cited, we can limit ourselves to noting three principle currents. The first took the direction northwest to southeast reaching India and having as its final echoes the Indian race, indo-afghan and indo-brachimorphic in Peters’ classification. In Europe, contrary to what you may believe, the traces of such grand currents are less visible or, at least, more confused, because they had a superposition of waves and therefore a composition of successive ethnic layers. In fact, after this current in the northwest-southeast direction (the transversal Nordic-Aryan current), a second current followed the direction West to East, in most of its branches through the routes of the Mediterranean, creating centres that sometimes should be considered even more ancient than those derived from the preceding transversal wave, because in this case it is not always about a forced emigration, but also of a colonization occurring before the destruction or the eventual uninhabitability of the original centres of the civilization of Hyperborean origins. We can call this second current, with the related trunk of races, Ario-Atlantic, or Nordic-Atlantic, or, finally, Atlantico-Occidental. In fact, it originates from an Atlantic land, in which it constituted a centre that, at its origin, was more or less an image of the Hyperborean centre. This land was destroyed by a catastrophe, whose memory likewise is found in the mythologized memory of the traditions of almost all peoples, and then after the waves of the colonizers a true emigration followed.
It is said that the land of Atlantis was familiar at its origin with a type of facsimile of the Hyperborean centre, because the data reaching our time lead us to think that a regression happened, both from the point of view of race and from the point of view of spirituality, in these Nordic stocks who had already ventured towards the south in the most ancient epoch. The mixing with the red-brown aborigines seems, in this regard, to have had a destructive and sizeable role, and if a precise record in Plato’s story is not found, in which the union of the “sons of the gods”—of the Hyperboreans—with the indigenous people was given the blame in the end, that recall what, in other recorded myths, are described as the “fall” of the heavenly race—of the “angels” or, again, the sons of the gods, ben elohim—who mated, at a particular moment, with the daughters of men (of the inferior races), committing a contamination significantly likened to, by other texts, the sin of sodomy, carnal relations with animals.
From the positive, scientific perspective, see The Science of God where the physicist Gerald Schroeder discusses the existence of pre-Adamic hominoids.
In The Psychology of Man’s Possible Evolution, Peter Ouspensky mentions the possibility of the existence of pre-Adamic hominoids.
Boris Mouravieff, who claims to be drawing on ancient Western traditions, accepts the existence of a pre-Adamic race in his Gnosis trilogy.
The idea of the polar origins of the Hyperborean race was discussed in The Arctic Home in the Vedas by Bal Tilak based on myths recorded in the Vedas.
For a recent theological and metaphysical discussion of the existence of humanoid animals, see Knowing Ape from Adam